Amino Acids

Amino acids - The Benefits For Your Body

Amino acids - The Benefits For Your Body

Sep 24, 2010 • By

Amino acids are critically important for life to exist and they have an important role in function such as the metabolism of an organism. They are the building blocks of proteins and form parts of coenzymes and aid in the biosynthesis of nutrients the body needs. All in all amino-acids are very important in nutrition and have a central part to play in food technology. Thisarticle will explain why amino-acids are so important and give you important knowledge you can use to eat healthy.

One of the most essential things for a healthy body is protein, after water it is the most abundant stuff that the body is made out of. Protein is required for the operation of enzymes, organs and muscles in the body. If you don't have enough protein then the chance that you will get some kind of disease increases quickly. A lack of amino-acids can cause heart-attacks, strokes and high blood pressure amongst other things.

There are many more different amino-acids that the body needs and they are divided into two groups. Essential amino-acids and non-essential amino-acids. Essential amino-acids are acids that the body can not create itself and so we need an outside source in order to get enough of them. This can be through food or through supplements. Essential amino-acids include: Valine, Tryptophan, Phenylaline, Threonine, Methionine, Lysine, Isoleucine and Leucine. We will take a closer look at two essential amino-acids.

The function of methionine together with argenine and glycine is to create creatine in the liver. Creatine is important for growing and maintaining muscles in the body. It can also create choline in order to synthesize Vitamin B12 which is an antioxidant. Antioxidants are important in order to protect cells from free radicals which contribute to aging and inflammation of cells. You can find this amino-acid in pork, whole milk, cheese, grapes, watermelon, cauliflower, sweet potato, celery and rice. The RDA of this particular amino-acid is 22mg per kg bodyweight for children and 13 mg for adults.

Lysine is another important amino-acid for the body. It cannot be synthesized within the body and so we need external sources of it. Together with zinc and Vitamin A and C we use it to to fight viral infectionsand also helps to regulate our appetite as well as help improve our concentration. To get enough of this amino-acid into your body you need to eat mango, apple, pork, milk, beef, papaya, spinach, beet root, potato, lentils, rice, cauliflower and cashew nuts.

Non-essential amino-acids include alanine, aspartic acids, glycine, serine, glutamic acid and tyrosine. There are also specific amino-acid requirements during growth phases such as when a child is growing up or when an adult is working out or otherwise improving their health. This is because amino-acids are the building blocks for protein. The proteins in our body can be divided into two kinds. Functional proteins which include hormones like insulin, thyroid hormone and digestive enzymes. Structural proteins are found in muscles, bones, cell walls and connective tissues. In addition amino-acids are also necessary for neurotransmitters, so that our brain cells can communicate with each other and so keep them healthy and working correctly.
As you can see getting enough amino-acids is essential for every aspect of your health and you should look to get all the amino-acids your body needs through a healthy diet based on fresh natural food and potentially through the use of supplements as well if you want to tackle a particular health issue or fitness goal.

How does L-Citrulline benefit you?

How does L-Citrulline benefit you?

Apr 24, 2009 • By

The role of L-Citrulline when it is used as a supplement is to improve blood flow in the body by converting to L-Arginine. The increase in L-Arginine provides benefits to the heart that are the result of a more easily flowing blood stream that is due to the effects that L-Arginine has on nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a compound that relaxes blood vessels. The more relaxed the blood vessels are, the better they are able to handle the flow of blood that runs through them. The benefits of L-Citrulline and L-Arginine are intertwined. The result of improved production of nitric oxide and better blood flow helps to ease physical fatigue (and some would argue mental fatigue also) as well as improve sexual function in both men and women (although the change is most dramatically seen by men who had previously been suffering from impotence before beginning an L-Citrulline/L-Arginine dietary supplement).

Levels of L-Arginine and nitric oxide are found naturally in the system. Everyone already has them. But as we age the lifestyle choices that we make may weaken our body's and handicap our ability to produce the appropriate levels of nitric oxide and L-Arginine. When we are under a great deal of stress or suffering from an illness, production of these essential functions becomes much more difficult. Amino acid requirements are even higher. Failure to produce enough amino acids to fight a weakened immune system translates into a hindrance of the digestive process and a toxin overload in the tissues. This is because amino acids are the building blocks on which proteins are made in the body. Amino acids affect the exercise metabolisms as well as the enzymes needed for brain metabolism. Amino acids aid in the ability of reducing stress, empowers vitamins and minerals to do their specific jobs correctly, acts as neurotransmitters (the sending and receiving of messages by the brain), and aids in the communication between nerve cells in other parts of the body.

Essential amino acids are found in foods that are common and every day. Such a list of foodshigh in amino acids includes meat and poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Yet one may have many reasons (i.e. allergies, being vegan or vegetarian, having a distaste for a particular food, etc.) to not want to consume these foods rich in the essential amino acids that the body would need to perform at peak levels. So a dietary supplement is available. L-Citrulline can provide the body with the amino acid kick start that it needs to convert to Arginine and increase the nitric oxide levels in the body.

As you can see anything that can aid the body in increasing amino acids and nitric oxide is going to do wonders to how your body functions and thus how you feel everyday. Thebenefits of using L-Citrulline as a dietary supplement are impressive, diverse and natural. These benefits are waiting to be had by the great majority of us (with the exception of those individuals currently on medication or receiving treatment that may not allow for the safe use of L-Citrulline or similar supplements). Talk to your doctor about whether or not L-Citrulline is right for you. Don't wait another day to start feeling more energetic both mentally and physically.

L-Glutamine and Clenbuterol

L-Glutamine and Clenbuterol

Aug 30, 2012 • By

L-Glutamine - the most abundant amino acid in muscle cells. It is released from the muscle during times of stress (during the hard strength training). This amino acid is an excellent anti-catabolic agent (protects the muscle from the catabolic activity of the hormone cortisol), which increases the amount of muscle cells and has a better immune system. Also, glutamine is a nonessential amino acid, ie human bodies can produce it yourself.


1. Regulation of protein synthesis.
2. Accelerating glycogen synthesis after exercise.
3. Recovery from strength training.

Because of its anti-catabolic properties and the fact that it accelerates glycogen synthesis after exercise, glutamine is best taken 20-30 minutes after your workout with a protein shake. In the days of rest, take glutamine with the last day of protein shakes. There is a lot of debate among experts about the dose of glutamine. I think that to start 3-5 grams would be enough. You need to give your stomach a little time to get used to this kind of supplement, and then increase the amount of 10-15 grams.

Side Effects

In the process of receiving glutamine, but slight abdominal discomfort in the first week, there was obnaruzhuno any other side effects. It is advisable to start taking glutamine in small doses (3 grams). Then this number can be increased to 10-15 grams per day, divided into 3 parts (1 serving in the morning and the other after a workout, and the third at bedtime). This is especially important to a diet, protect your muscles from the effects of cortisol.

Please remember that when you buy glutamine, like any other supplement, you must adhere to high quality brands:

    Power System

Clenbuterol for local fat loss

As for practical advice on muscle mass with clenbuterol (necessarily accompanied by aromatizable steroids - do not forget!), They may be:

1. Train in the traumatic mode no more than one muscle group (maximum - 2).
2. Traumatic training should take place no more frequently than once a week.
3. Alternate traumatized muscle groups.
4. The dose of clenbuterol on the day of exercise, as has been said, should be around 300-400 mg (8-10 tablets of 40 mg), the drug must be taken before exercise, preferably 6-8 hours before it started.
5. In the remaining days of taking clenbuterol is not necessary.
6. After a workout, take higher doses of amino acids.

A special problem is often not total body fat burning, but local. Many are so-called "problem areas", the fat that do not want to burn, no matter what tricks. And if it burns down, then bringing along a few pounds we need these muscles. Injection of liquid clenbuterol help to burn fat just as a problem area.

Contrary to a widely held opinion, the local - "point" - the burning of fat may simply those who are trying to achieve, as a rule, this did not reach those areas in which direct their efforts. Adipose tissue, like muscle tissue, nerve fibers penetrated. The brain communicates with the tissues (including fat and) by neurotransmitters, which act in the role of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Both the first and second, it just so happened, are sufficiently powerful fat-burning hormones. In theory, we can burn fat just by one by an effort by sending neurotransmitters exactly where needed. But only in theory.

In practice, it is possible to direct the epinephrine and norepinephrine in the area where you want to achieve the accelerated burning of body fat, with the help of local injections of clenbuterol. It is worth to stress that if you expect to get visible results with just one or two injections, one should not even try this method, so that there was bitter disappointment. The visible result comes after a month and a half of regular multiple shots, and only against a background of fairly strict diet. specializes in the sale of anabolic steroids. You can always buy anabolic steroids as Testosterone enanthate, Nolvadex, Clomid, Proviron, Dianabol, Sustanon and other essential steroids. cooperates only with reliable manufacturers that have corresponding medical certificate. The experts thoroughly check the products upon receipt. Every anabolic steroids and tested and the detection of cases of fraud or other types of defects are rejected immediately and destroyed. has increased level of security for customer's data. They are stored in encrypted form and are not disclosed under any circumstances.

Deficiency Of Essential Amino Acids

Deficiency Of Essential Amino Acids

Mar 04, 2010 • By

We generally say that Non veg foods are quality proteins containing all nine Essential amino acids.Then you will say why not Non-Veg: But looking at surrounding factors like
1) Cost,
2) Commercial production(Use of steroids in developing animals),
3) Pollution(Water pollution affecting fish etc.),
4) Preparation Methods (Use of microwave radiation for cooking which distorts the molecular structures of proteins.
Factors 2,3 & 4 affects the quality & digesstively & assimilation in the body.
Already the non veg proteins are not easy to digest & assimilate by nature.We also need to take special precautions to preserves non veg food.Also due to global warmingfood scarcity there is a campaign for avoiding non veg & getting converted to be veg which is also suppose to be healthy.
In India due to religious factor Non veg is eaten sparingly.We mostly depend on veg food.
In veg food milk is allowed but unused or misused (in team and coffee).Non other thancereals, pulses and dals gives us proteins that too of low quality individually.

Our body is made up of twenty two amino acids. Amino acids can not be stored in the body and daily needs is fulfilled through diet only. Body needs nine amino acids which are termed asessential amino acids. Other thirteen amino acids can be synthesized by our body in presence of nine essential amino acids.
It looks easy to consume only nine instead of twenty two. But we miss just one and two respectively in pulses and cereals. A set of six amino acids is common in both cereals and pulses.
Methionine is available in cereals but deficient in pulses. Lysine and threonine are present in pulses but absent in cereals.
This way it seems clear that we have to combine cereals with pulses.
Here note the point that our diet is mostly cereal based. We have to eat pulses at least 60 to 75 gms per day. i.e. three medium katories of thick cooked dal. (Which doesn't spreads when placed in a dish). We eat 3 to 4 times in a day and in that only 1 or 2 times we have pulses that too thin in nature.We eat only 20 to 25 grams of dal instead of 60 to 75 grams.
Thus our diet lacks in two essential amino acids 1) Lysine and 2) Threonine.

Amino Acids Determination in Food

Amino Acids Determination in Food

Mar 03, 2016 • By

Determination of cystine

Cystine is easy to be broken during the protein hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid. So here acid oxidation method is applied to oxidized cystine and cysteine into cysteic acid, which can be detected on an automatic amino acid analyzer and then compared to standard cysteic acid tocalculate its content. This method has been proven to be suitable for the detection of cystine in food.

Equipments and reagents
Hydrolyzed bottles: a rigid tube, volume is 20 ~ 30mL, rinsing with deionized water and drying and evaporator. Performic acid: mixing 9ml pure formic acid with 1ml 30% hydrogen oxidized and placing at room temperature for 2 hours or more.

Experimental steps:
1.Acid oxidation
Weighing proper food sample with 5-10mg proteins in hydrolysis bottle, and adding 1ml performic acid reagent placed at room temperature for 3 hours. Adding 1mL of ethanol to terminate oxidation. And then putting the sample bottle in evaporator to dry at 45℃. Removing performic acid with deionized water rinsing bottle wall for 3 times.
2.Hydrochloric acid hydrolysis
3.On Bekman6300 automatic amino acid analyzer, eluting with pH3.25 citric acid buffer

Determination of tryptophan

Tryptophan is easy to be decomposed in the presence of acid in protein solution. This method is to Hydrolyze protein with a base to detect the fluorescence of tryptophan directly. In protein hydrolyzate, only tryptophan and tyrosine can be detected with fluorescence. At pH 11, the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan is as 100 times strong as that of tyrosine and their fluorescence peaks is different. This method allows researchers to detect tryptophan's content in the presence of a large number of tyrosine.

Equipments and reagents

Fluorescence spectrophotometer, evaporator under reduced pressure, screw-cap jars, teflon tube, small glass balls and oven. 5mol / L NaOH: containing 0.5% soluble starch, 4mol / L urea (pH = 11), 6mol / L hydrochloric acid, bromothymol blue indicator: Weigh 0.1g bromothymol blue plus 0.1mol / L sodium hydroxide 1.6ml, dubbed aqueous solution of 0.05%, high-purity nitrogen (99.999% content), a toluene solution of octanol: octanol containing 1% and Tryptophan standard solution: (1mg / ml): weighing tryptophan standards dissolved with sodium hydroxide solution 0.005mol / L and stored in the refrigerator.

Experimental steps:

1.Weighing 5mg food sample with crude protein placed in a teflon tube. Adding 1ml 5mol/L sodium hydroxide containing soluble starch and one drop of octanol.
2.Covering tubes with small glass balls and putting into a screw-top big mouth glass bottle placed in the vacuum evaporation apparatus and cooled with ice and salt for 15min. And then filling nitrogen and repeating steps above for 3 times. And then tightening of the screw cap jars rapidly.
3.Putting the jars with nitrogen in the oven at 110℃ and then dissolving the sample for 22 hours.
4.Cooling jars washed with distilled water to 25ml volumetric flask. And then regulating pH to neutral with bromothymol blue as indicator, and marking with distilled water.
5.Pipette solution 1ml into 10 ml lidded test tube, and then diluting to the mark with pH11 4mol / L urea solution. Detecting fluorescence intensity at wavelength of 280nm and an emission wavelength of 360mm.
6.Calculating fluorescence intensity according to the standard curve.

Supplemental Amino Acids: Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), Glutamic Acid, Glutamine and Glutathione, Glycine, Histidine, Homocysteine

Supplemental Amino Acids: Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), Glutamic Acid, Glutamine and Glutathione, Glycine, Histidine, Homocysteine

May 06, 2010 • By

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It is essential for brain metabolism, aiding in proper brain function. GABA is formed in the body from another amino acid, glutamic acid. Its function is to decrease neuron activity and inhibit nerve cells from over firing. Together with niacinamide and inositol, it prevents anxiety- and stress-related messages from reaching the motor centers of the brain by occupying their receptor sites.

GABA can be taken to calm the body in much the same way as diazepam (Valium), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), and other tranquilizers, but without the fear of addiction. It has been used in the treatment of epilepsy and hypertension.

GABA is good for depressed sex drive because of its ability as a relaxant. It is also useful for enlarged prostate, probably because it plays a role in the mechanism regulating the release of sex hormones. GABA is effective in treat ing attention deficit disorder and may reduce cravings for alcohol. It is also thought to promote growth hormone secretion.

Too much GABA, however, can cause increased anxiety, shortness of breath, numbness around the mouth, and tingling in the extremities. Further, abnormal levels of GABA unbalance the brain's message-delivery system and may cause seizures.

Glutamic Acid

Glutamic acid is an excitatory neurotransmitter that in-creases the firing of neurons in the central nervous sys-tem. It is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It is converted into either glutamine or GABA.

This amino acid is important in the metabolism of sugars and fats, and aids in the transportation of potassium into the spinal fluid and across the blood-brain barrier. Al though it does not pass the blood-brain barrier as readily as glutamine does, it is found at high levels in the blood and may infiltrate the brain in small amounts. The brain can use glutamic acid as fuel. Glutamic acid can detoxify ammonia by picking up nitrogen atoms, in the process creating another amino acid, glutamine. The conversion of glutamic acid into glutamine is the only means by which ammonia in the brain can be detoxified.

Glutamic acid helps to correct personality disorders and is useful in treating childhood behavioral disorders. It is used in the treatment of epilepsy, mental retardation, muscular dystrophy, ulcers, and hypoglycemic coma, a complication of insulin treatment for diabetes. It is a component of folate (folic acid), a B vitamin that helps the body break down amino acids. Because one of its salts is monosodium glutamate (MSG), glutamic acid should be avoided by anyone who is allergic to MSG.


Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid found in the muscles of the body. Because it can readily pass the blood-brain barrier, it is known as brain fuel. In the brain, glutamine is converted into glutamic acid which is essential for cerebral function and vice versa. It also increases the amount of GABA, which is needed to sustain proper brain function and mental activity. It assists in maintaining the proper acid/alkaline balance in the body, and is the basis of the building blocks for the synthesis of RNA and DNA. It promotes mental ability and the maintenance of a healthy digestive tract.

When an amino acid is broken down, nitrogen is re-leased. The body needs nitrogen, but free nitrogen can form ammonia, which is especially toxic to brain tissues. The liver can convert nitrogen into urea, which is excreted in the urine, or nitrogen may attach itself to glutamic acid. This process forms glutamine. Glutamine is unique among the amino acids in that each molecule contains not one nitrogen atom but two. Thus, its creation helps to clear am-monia from the tissues, especially brain tissue, and it can transfer nitrogen from one place to another.

Glutamine is found in large amounts in the muscles and is readily available when needed for the synthesis of skele-tal muscle proteins. Because this amino acid helps to build and maintain muscle, supplemental glutamine is useful for dieters and bodybuilders. More important, it helps to pre-vent the kind of muscle wasting that can accompany pro-longed bed rest or diseases such as cancer and AIDS. This is because stress and injury (including surgical trauma) cause the muscles to release glutamine into the blood-stream. In fact, during times of stress, as much as one third of the glutamine present in the muscles may be released. As a result, stress and/or illness can lead to the loss of skeletal muscle. If enough glutamine is available, however, this can be prevented.

Supplemental L-glutamine can be helpful in the treatment of arthritis, autoimmune diseases, fibrosis, intestinal disorders, peptic ulcers, connective tissue diseases such as polymyositis and scleroderma, and tissue damage due to radiation treatment for cancer. L-glutamine can enhance mental functioning and has been used to treat a range of problems, including developmental disabilities, epilepsy, fatigue, impotence, depression, schizophrenia, and senility.

It preserves glutathione in the liver and protects that organ from the effects of acetaminophen overdose. It enhances antioxidant protection. L-glutamine decreases sugar cravings and the desire for alcohol, and is useful for recovering alcoholics.

Many plant and animal substances contain glutamine, but cooking easily destroys it. If eaten raw, spinach and parsley are good sources. Supplemental glutamine must be kept absolutely dry or the powder will degrade into ammonia and pyroglutamic acid. Glutamine should not be taken by persons with cirrhosis of the liver, kidney problems, Reye's syndrome, or any type of disorder that can result in an accumulation of ammonia in the blood. For such individuals, taking supplemental glutamine may only cause further damage to the body. Be aware that although the names sound similar, glutamine, glutamic acid (also sometimes called glutamate), glutathione, gluten, and monosodium glutamate are all different substances.


Like carnitine, glutathione is not technically one of the arnino acids. It is a compound classified as a tripeptide, and the body produces it from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. Because of its close relationship to these amino acids, however, it is usually considered to gether with them.

Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that is produced in the liver. The largest stores of glutathione are found in the liver, where it detoxifies harmful compounds so that they can be excreted through the bile. Some glutathione is released from the liver directly into the bloodstream, where it helps to maintain the integrity of red blood cells and protect white blood cells. Glutathione is also found in the lungs and the intestinal tract. It is needed for carbohydrate metabolism and appears to exert antiaging effects, aiding in the breakdown of oxidized fats that may con-tribute to atherosclerosis

It can mitigate some of the damage caused by tobacco smoke because it modifies the harmful effects of aldehydes, chemicals present in cigarette smoke that damage cells and molecules, and it may protect the liver from alcohol-induced damage.

A deficiency of glutathione first affects the nervous system, causing such symptoms as lack of coordination, mental disorders, tremors, and difficulty maintaining balance. These problems are believed to be due to the development of lesions in the brain. A study sponsored in part by the National Cancer Institute found that people with HIV disease who had low glutathione levels had a lower survival rate over a three-year period than those whose glutathione levels were normal. As we age, glutathione levels decline, although it is not known whether this is because we use it more rapidly or produce less of it to begin with. Unfortunately, if not corrected, the lack of glutathione in turn ac celerates the aging process.

Supplemental glutathione is expensive, and the effectiveness of oral formulas is questionable. To raise glutathione levels, it is better to supply the body with the raw materials it uses to make this compound: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. The N-acetyl form of cysteine, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is considered particularly effective for this purpose.


Glycine retards muscle degeneration by supplying additional creatine, a compound that is present in muscle tissue and is utilized in the construction of DNA and RNA. It improves glycogen storage, thus freeing up glucose for energy needs. It is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, bile acids, and other nonessential amino acids in the body.

Glycine is used in many gastric antacid agents. Because high concentrations of glycine are found in the skin and connective tissues, it is useful for repairing damaged tissues and promoting healing.

Glycine is necessary for central nervous system function and a healthy prostate. It functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter and as such can help prevent epileptic seizures. It has been used in the treatment of manic (bipolar) depression, and can also be effective for hyperactivity.

Having too much of this amino acid in the body can cause fatigue, but having the proper amount produces more energy. If necessary, glycine can be converted into the amino acid serine in the body.


Histidine is an essential amino acid that is significant in the growth and repair of tissues. It is important for the maintenance of the myelin sheaths, which protect nerve cells, and is needed for the production of both red and white blood cells. Histidine also protects the body from radiation dam age, helps lower blood pressure, aids in removing heavy metals from the system, and may help in the prevention of AIDS.

Histidine levels that are too high may lead to stress and even psychological disorders such as anxiety and schizophrenia; people with schizophrenia have been found to have high levels of histidine in their bodies. Inadequate levels of histidine may contribute to rheumatoid arthritis and may be associated with nerve deafness. Methionine has the ability to lower histidine levels.

Histamine, an important immune system chemical, is derived from histidine. Histamine aids in sexual arousal.

Because the availability of histidine influences histamine production, taking supplemental histidine together with vitamins B3 (niacin) and B6 (pyridoxine), which are required for the transformation from histidine to histamine may help improve sexual functioning and pleasure.

Because histamine also stimulates the secretion of gastric juices, histidine may be helpful for people with indigestion resulting from a lack of stomach acid.

Persons with manic (bipolar) depression should not take supplemental histidine unless a deficiency has been identified. Natural sources of histidine include rice, wheat, and rye.


Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced in the body in the course of methionine metabolism. This amino acid has been the focus of increasing attention in recent years, because high levels of homocysteine in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Further, it is known that homocysteine has a toxic effect on cells lining the arteries, makes the blood more prone to clotting, and promotes the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL, the so-called "bad cholesterol"), which makes it more likely that cholesterol will be deposited as plaque in the blood vessels.

Like other amino acids, homocysteine does perform a necessary function in the body. It is then usually broken down quickly into the amino acid cysteine and other important compounds, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an im portant source of cellular energy) and Sadenosylmethionine (SAMe). However, a genetic defect or, more commonly, de ficiencies of vitamins B6 and B12 and folate (folic acid) can prevent homocysteine from converting rapidly enough. As a result, high levels of the amino acid accumulate in the body, damaging cell membranes and blood vessels, and increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis. Vitamins B6 and B12 and folate work together to facilitate the breakdown of homocysteine, and thus help protect against heart disease.

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